R O Q U O I S
United States (2010) - 220
Having thirty palisaded villages
with as many as 300 houses in each and a fleet of canoes on Lake
Erie, the Massawomeck were a powerful, warring tribe who occupied
the lands between Lake Erie and Chesapeake Bay. They were feared
by the Manahoac, Piscataway, Nanticoke, and Powhatan. The Massawomeck
controlled the flow of European trade goods into the interior.
Unfortunately, the Seneca
attacked the Massawomeck in the northern Lake Erie area in 1606.
The campaign continued and eventually the Massawomeck suffered
major setbacks in 1634. Refugees flowed to the southeastern portion
of their territories. They also went into Susquehanna Territories
and became known as the "Black Minqua". Ultimately,
the Massawomeck and Susquehanna themselves were defeated and
absorbed into the Seneca. However, some remaining Massawomeck
(and Susquehanna) did manage to escape southward and merge with
the Iroquois Meherrin.
When Europeans finally entered
central Massawomeck Territory in the mid-1660's, the land was
In 1939, Mary Butler coined
the term "Monongahela" to describe late prehistoric
sites found in the valleys of the Monongahela River and its tributaries.